Category: Extinct Memorials

Derelict War Memorial in Springs

Since I first started photographing memorials I have been of the opinion that war memorials on the East Rand are really wasted. The only exception to the rule was the former Brakpan Roll of Honour that was claimed by the Cosy Corner MOTH Shelhole in Brakpan.

The latest in extinct war memorials was found by a correspondent; William Martinson, who kindly sent me images of what is left of what may have been a memorial erected by a MOTH shellhole in Springs.

The clue here is an inscription that is left on the structure.

Naturally I wanted to know more, so have mailed off my contact in the area to see whether he can shed any light on it. There is a Honey tank in Springs and she does not seem to have a a context in the place where she is now (being stripped while nobody is looking), and I could not help wondering if she was not the gate guard from there. I did a blogpost on her recently, and this may be part of the puzzle.

The next question is: just where is this structure. It took me some time but eventually I found it on Google earth.  The co-ordinates are roughly -26.246636°, 28.429237°.

I was very curious about the area that the derelict is in, from GE you can see a large parklike area with lots of trees shaped like a cross. You can see the trees in the image below, the white arrow points to the derelict.

The cemetery can just be seen in the top centre of the image. Historical images on GE date back to 2008 and it appears as if it was a wreck even then. My own thoughts were: “Why build a war memorial there anyway?” From a 2017 perspective it makes no sense, but immediately after the 1st world war it was a totally different story, the memorial being erected in the 1930’s. The other derelict war memorial in Springs pretty much sums it up.  A change in demographics, less money for maintenance and more for mercs, a culture of neglect for history and the never ending quest to cut costs so that the suits will have more to spend on salary increases in spite of them never earning one in the first place. 

Many years ago the MOTH was a thriving organisation, with shellholes in most cities, but the decline in their membership, and a policy of declining former national servicemen membership really put the nail in the coffin. Witness the closure of the former headquarters in Johannesburg and the abandonment of the war memorial in “Remembrance Square”

Whatever the reason for the state of this structure, had the inscription not remained it would really have been worth ignoring, but the words “Mutual Help, Comradeship and Sound Memory” really are a farce in this case.

My thanks must go to William Martinson for his images. He also sent me a link to the Artefacts site that has an entry on the  memorial.  The link also provides an answer to the cross shaped trees in Olympia Park. It is a pity that no images have surfaced that could show how this structure looked when it was originally inaugurated, perhaps the answer is in the local library in Springs? assuming one exists in the first place. 

I am hoping that somebody will be able to add to the history of the structure. If you do have any information I would love to hear from you. 

Update 07/07/2017

My contact had the following to say: “I managed to track down that this structure was a cenotaph and garden of remembrance for the Springs Dugout of the MOTHs during the early 30s. There are no longer any Shellholes in Springs. The last one to close was Mudhook which was situated diagonally across the road of the new Springs Civic Centre. The Shellholes in Spings were Mudhook, Black Cat and Seven Seas. We have the Bell from Seven Seas Shellhole at Cosy Corner,  There are supposedly two field guns standing close to the public swimming pool that used to stand next to the wall of Remembrance,I will make a plan and go and check it out. The park as far as I know is called Olympia Park.”

The monument also featured in an article about illegal dumping in the Springs Advertiser of 6 August 2015.

So there we have it in a nutshell. The MOTH shellholes closed down and the memorial was left behind. The field guns? who knows. I have not forgotten this memorial though and will keep an eye open. Somewhere out there must be an image of some information. 

© DRW 2017-2018, created 02/07/2017, updated 07/07/2017, 18/07/2017

Updated: 12/01/2018 — 07:17

202 Battalion Memorial

34 Battalion was commonly known as the “Kavangoland Battalion” and it was established in 1975 as 1 Kavango Battalion to serve as a ceremonial guard of honour.  It was then renamed 34 Battalion and again renamed 202 Battalion in 1980.

As part of Sector 20, their main area of responsibility was from Rundu West as far as Sector 10 and East up to the Bagani Bridge and they were credited with completely suppressing all insurgency activities in the Kavango area of the South West Africa region by 1987. The unit was disbanded in 1990/1991

In 1987, Cmdt JR Liebenberg tasked the RSM, WO1 FJS Scheepers to erect a Memorial to the Fallen of 202 battalion and to create a museum at the base in Rundu in what was then South West Africa. It was inaugurated by Major General WC Meyer and OC Sector 20 Col. PM Muller on 8 November 1987



When South West Africa gained it’s independence the memorial, like many memorials in the operational area was moved to safety, but unfortunately it went “missing” and was eventually traced to the Army College in Pretoria but it had been destroyed at some point.

The Roll of Honour falling victim at the same time.

It is hoped that one day a new memorial will be erected to remember those members of 202 Battalion who paid the ultimate price. 

Roll Of Honour.

The  Roll of Honour is a work in process as more information is forthcoming. It is based off the ROH at the 202 Bn Wikipedia page but is by no means complete)

© DRW 2017-2018. Created 16/04/2017. Images courtesy of Charl Parkin, used with permission. 

Updated: 11/01/2018 — 20:48

REGM Military Cemetery

The Randfontein Estates Gold Mine Military Cemetery is somewhat of a misnomer, the reality is that it is a collection of graves related to the Jameson Raid next to a railway line.

The graves are of Troopers William Charles Beatty-Powell, John Bernard Bletsoe, Harry Davies, John R.H. Foster, and C.E Hennessy, and they were hidden amongst the trees, and not too many people were actually aware of them. When I was first looking for them I was really lucky to find a security guard who knew the spot. His name was Alpheus Cele, and without him I have never found them. My first visit was in 2009, and at the time the area was half hidden amongst the trees and grass, in 2012, the site has been cleared of vegetation, although no restoration had been done. 

The site  can be be found at Google Earth co-ordinates: 26° 9.021’S 27° 43.462’E

REGM Military Cemetery 2009

REGM Military Cemetery 2009

REGM Military Cemetery 2009

REGM Military Cemetery 2009

REGM Military Cemetery 2009 after it had been cleaned up

REGM Military Cemetery 2012 after it had been cleaned up

In March 2018 I was contacted by the South African War Grave Society  (Registration No.: 203-374 NPO) who had undertaken a partial restoration of the graves. Unfortunately my images really stop at 2012 so I am sure that the graves are looking better since the restoration was undertaken. The image below shows a before and after. 


(Image from South African War Grave Society Information sheet)

I wish them much success in their future projects, and may it grow from strength to strength. If you would like to assist please contact me via my contacts page and I will pass on their contact details. 

 DRW © 2011-2018. Moved to Blog 30/11/2014

Updated: 03/03/2018 — 15:24

Germiston Cenotaph

I spotted the Germiston and Districts War Memorial purely by accident after taking a wrong turn on my way home on 14 November 200. The Memorial is on the corner of Odendaal and President Strs. Germiston, in front of the former Carnegie Library. Sadly though it had been desecrated and defaced and was used as a drinking spot as well as a posterboard for abortions. Ironically, Remembrance Day was only a few days before, and it was doubtful whether any remembering was done in Germiston that year, or for a few years before or afterwards.

Germiston and Districts War Memorial

Germiston and Districts War Memorial

WW2 Face

WW2 Face

The Memorial on the corner

The Memorial on the corner

WW1 Face

WW1 Face

In 2013 I received reports that the plaques had been removed from the memorial and nobody knew who or why they had been removed, the area was also fenced and my instinct said that some sort of development was going to happen but nobody could inform me what it was or whether the plaques were in storage. I feared the worst. Unfortunately the war memorials on the East Rand and a travesty of remembrance, and it seemed as if yet another extinct memorial was in the offing.

However, an interesting article appeared on the Heritage Portal which leads me to believe that there may be hope at the end of the tunnel for the derelict Carnegie Library and the memorial. In the article it confirms that the plaques were stolen in 2013. The Memorial will be restored as part of the project with replica plaques and “…commemoration of the African contribution to the war effort of the First World War be added to the extant memorial.” Work on the new theatre is due to commence in November 2014, although I am always sceptical about these things. But, I live in hope.

The derelict former Carnegie Library

The derelict former Carnegie Library

However, until such times as I know otherwise, this memorial is considered to be extinct.

Update: As at 29/10/2015 the link to the Heritage Portal article redirects to a front page only and no longer to the article. The article has been moved to the following location:

© DRW 2009-2018. Created 14/11/2009. Replaced image 07/11/2011, updated 09/07/2013. Added to blog 13/10/2014

Updated: 08/01/2018 — 07:40

The derelict war memorial in Springs

When I originally visited Palmietkuil War Cemetery in 2007 I saw that there was a war memorial in Springs marked on my streetfinder. When I finally got to Springs I could not find it, but then I was expecting something like a plaque or small plinth. However, there was one odd structure that I took a few photographs of that I was not too sure about.

That was on an traffic island on the intersection of Boksburg Street and 1st East Ave, (Google Earth co-ordinates: -26.248567° 28.440126°) almost on the edge of the town, and that structure was a mess. Surely something like that was not a war memorial? At the time I did not even write it up for the web page.

I finally was able to confirm that this is the “War Memorial”, although it is totally unrecognisable as being anything like a memorial. Erected in 1965 I believe that underneath the dome there was a tripod of rifles, the interior of the dome having “Their Name Liveth Forevermore” inscribed on it. Concrete panels lined the pathway to the dome, and on these were the lists of names of the fallen. A fountain burbled in the background and Remembrance Day Parades were regularly held there. That was in the past.

Scroll forward to December 2011,  and only the basic structure remains. The rifles are long gone, the names are long gone, the fountain, which was working in 2007 was no longer in operation,  and the promise inside the dome about never forgetting can be vaguely read as dim outlines on the walls. Homeless people have made this their new home and litter abounds.

In between Nov 2007 and Dec 2011 apart from gardening nothing had changed or been improved. Its too late for the memorial, but I would have thought the town council would have at least done something with this derelict structure. Sadly, this memorial is now extinct.

In 2014, I was contacted by Joe Borain who informed me that they were stealing the copper off what was left of the dome.  The image below being taken in February 2014. It was also announced that the council would be “restoring” the memorial, but whether that ever happens remains to be seen.

Following a discussion on facebook, I learnt that there is another war memorial in the Springs Civic Centre, and that too has been vandalised/neglected. It seems as if Springs is really not interested in their heritage at all.

*Update 29/12/2016*

A number of articles about the state of the memorial appeared in the Springs Advertiser in 2014.

The local council promised that they were going to restore the memorial, part of the restoration would be the removal of what was left of the copper on the dome and plastering and painting it, as well as replacing the lost panels. The upgrades were meant to be completed by May 2015.

The dome was cleared and replastered by Aprl 2015 but whether anything has been done further is not known.  

Joe Borain sent me images of the “progress” so far, still no plaques, although the grass has been cut. It was as expected though, not much changes in small dorpies like Springs. (images are from 30/12/2016)

Special thanks to Diederik Cloete for the information and Joe Borain for the updated pics

© DRW 2010-2018. Created 14/12/2011. Moved to blog 09/02/2013. Updated 17/02/2014, 29/12/2016

Updated: 06/01/2018 — 13:12

The MOTH Memorial in Remembrance Square, Johannesburg

These photographs were taken on 15 October 2011 at the Moth Memorial in Remembrance Square in Johannesburg. I actually had no idea that this existed, it is in a really obscure place that has become one of the forgotten areas of Johannesburg.

Many years ago the Memorable Order of Tin Hats (aka MOTH),  had a large hall (and possibly their regional headquarters) in the building facing it, and it was a very popular venue for dances and functions.

Today it looks like a sad seedy hotel and as you can see from the pics, the memorial has become yet another forgotten icon of an organisation with an ever diminishing reason to exist, as the World War veterans pass on.

The Memorial is a three sided needle with the remains of insignia from the Air Force on one side, the wording “Ons Sal Gedenk/We Shall Remember Them”  and a Tin Hat and half destroyed plaque on what I suspect was the front.  Ironically the street is called Remembrance Street. Realistically it is now a taxi parking spot and a popular object to lean against after a few pints.

The former MOTH hall.

The former MOTH hall.

Remembrance Square may be found at Google Earth Co-ordinates     26° 11.918’S, 28° 2.437’E.

© DRW 2011-2018. Created 15/10/2011.  Moved to blog 07/01/2014

Updated: 06/01/2018 — 12:49

The former Irish Brigade Memorial in Brixton

The Irish Brigades Monument is now situated in Orania and this page is about the site where it used to be.  

This memorial shows up on old street finders as being between the Brixton Tower and the AW Muller Stadium. However, when I got there I found something that left me puzzled.

The remains in 2011

The remains in 2011

I tried finding any information on the memorial and all I could find was an article that said it was the site of a monument to Irish volunteers who fought for the Boers during the South African War and that it had been sold in the mid 90’s.  I will be honest, I knew nothing about what this memorial looked like, or whether it was even the right one, but this is one memorial that is now extinct, albeit at its original site.

At the end of 2007 I found a picture which shows the monument in the distance next to the Brixton Tower.

I have since heard that the there was some controversy regarding this memorial which apparently was erected in the 1970’s, and that it was dismantled and the components were removed to Orania in June 2002.  It now stands on Monument Hill on the edge of the town, (Google Earth: -29.811852°.  24.419704°). Images available on the Mail and Guardian website from 14 November 2014 

At first  the site reminded me of a gun emplacement, but I also considered that it could have been the site of a searchlight mounting for the Brixton Tower. There used to be a plaque there, but its gone, and any artefacts that could be identified are also gone. The only thing I found was litter, uncut grass and a rubble.


In October 2011, I was contacted by an architect; William Martinson Barch, who sent me a link to what this monument looked like at ground level.  The architect was Johan (Jan) Carel Van Wijk, (also designed the Language Monument in Paarl) and it was dated 1975.

“…..The design for the Irish Monument, which consists of 4 pillars, symbolize the 4 Irish commandos in an ascending line to form the ultimate goal of freedom. It was unveiled in 1975 by Mrs Betsie Verwoerd. ” (

There is an interesting history of the Irish Volunteers as well as the memorial available at “The South African History Source. Written by Experts“.

I revisited the site in Brixton in December 2011 to see if there had been any progress, but if anything it was looking worse that it had before. The “Freedom Memorial” that was supposedly at the site of the AW Muller Stadium has also been removed.

So while the memorial doesn’t exist in Brixton it does exist in Orania and moving it back to its original sight would achieve no purpose at all.  

There is also a short video on youtube about the monument

© DRW 2007-2018. Updated 29/10/2011, Special thanks to William Martinson and Diederik-Johannes Cloete for information and links. New image added 02/12/2011. Moved to blog 07/02/2014. Updated 27/12/2016 and new page created 28/12/2016

Updated: 06/01/2018 — 12:50

Garden of Remembrance, Brakpan

The Garden of Remembrance in Brakpan should rather be called “the wreckage of remembrance”. I am sure that when this memorial was built it was really impressive, but alas now it is a travesty.  At the time of writing (November 2007) it did not appear that anything had been done there in years and that the memorial had been abandoned.

In August 2008 I was informed that the name plaque which was on the memorial had been removed. At the time I suspected that it had been stolen, but fortunately I did have images of it so the names were known.

Roll of Honour

Roll of Honour

On 13 November 2011, I was contacted by Joe Borain who explained that the name plaque had been removed from the derelict memorial and a new Wall of Remembrance was erected at the Cosy Corner Moth Shellhole in Brenthurst, Brakpan, and the plaque had been installed there. I visited the Shellhole to view the new  wall in December 2011 and was able to photograph the newly built wall at the Shellhole.

The rebuilt Wall of Remembrance at Cosy Corner MOTH Shellhole

The rebuilt Wall of Remembrance at Cosy Corner MOTH Shellhole

From a derelict “garden of remembrance”, to a newly erected Wall of Remembrance. It goes to show what is possible given the right people at the right time. However, it is very sad that measures like this have to be taken to preserve the memory of those who sacrificed their lives in the two World Wars. Special thanks to Joe Borain for his assistance in this regard.

© DRW 2007 – 2018. Created 15/11/2007, Updated 24/12/2012. Moved to blog 07/02/2014.

Updated: 06/01/2018 — 12:50

First World War Memorial, Rotunda Park, Turffontein

I was not aware of this memorial in all the years I lived in Turffontein, I only discovered it by accident when looking for memorials in my map book. In 2007 when I originally took these photographs, vandals had taken their toll and all that was left was the stone plinth where the plaque must have been.

I returned in 2011, hoping that something would have been done, but alas now even parts of the back of plinth had been removed. To my amazement I received an email in March 2015 to the effect that a new plaque had been installed on the memorial by Johannesburg City Parks.

Restored Memorial 2015

Restored Memorial 2015

When visiting South Africa in March 2017 I detoured to the Memorial to see the condition of it.


Special thanks to Ioanna Karamitsos,  Fundraiser, Johannesburg City Parks & Zoo; for the original images and for contacting me in this regard, and to City Parks for restoring the dignity of this memorial in March 2015.

Rotunda Park may be found at Google Earth co-ordinates  26° 14.613’S, 28° 2.357’E

© DRW 2007-2018. Updated 15/08/2011. Moved to blog 07/02/2014, updated 27/05/2015, images updated 25/03/2017

Updated: 06/01/2018 — 12:51

The De La Rey Plaque in Langlaagte

I went looking for this memorial in August 2011 at Langlaagte Station. Admittedly this is (or was) an odd place to find a plaque, but the place has significance in the death of General Koos De La Rey and possibly the South West African Campaign in World War One. The place where he died was originally marked with a plaque which referred to him as “Die LEEU van Wes-Transvaal”. It was at the entrance of Langlaagte Station in Deville Street in Paarlshoop,

Langlaagte Station, site of original plaques

Langlaagte Station, site of original plaques

The remains of the De la Rey Plaque

The remains of the De la Rey Plaque

 Unfortunately, the plaque was gone, probably stolen for scrap metal.  leaving behind a varnished piece of wood and a smaller brass plate that read “Herdenking. Rapportryersfeeste 1949”.  All I could really do was mark this as an extinct monument.

Update: (27/01/2015)

New plaques were installed at the site in Sept 2014 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the death of General De la Rey. René De Villiers was able to help me with images of the plaques as well as other related material.

The new plaque installed at the station

The new plaque installed at the station (opens in a new window)

Two other plaques have been installed at the site.

The second plaque (new window)

The second plaque (new window)

Third plaque

Third plaque

René also supplied the following information about the events around that time.

“General Koos de la Rey

By any measure the political situation in South Africa this year is unsettling. But it pales against the political turmoil in the country one hundred years ago in 1914. Following the assassination of the Crown Prince of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Franz-Ferdinand in June of that year in Sarajevo, the First World War (at the time referred to as The Great War) broke out on the 28th July 1914. Because of its connection with Belgium, Great Britain was drawn into the war within a week, on 3rd August; and by early September of that year the world was introduced to the horrors of trench warfare.

In South Africa, the Union Government  formed  in 1910 under the premiership of Genl. Louis Botha and with Genl. Jan Smuts as Minister of Defence  sided with Great Britain, and parliament in Cape Town resolved to invade German West Africa (today known as Namibia).  The Anglo Boer War had ended a scant 12 years before on 31st May 1902, and some of the “Bitter einder” generals  on the Boer side saw the Great War as an opportunity to reclaim their independence from Britain. Talk of an armed rebellion was in the air, although the protagonists referred to themselves as merely protesters. The immensely influential Genl. Koos de la Rey, fondly referred to as “Die Leeu van die Wes-Transvaal” and the hero of many battles in the Anglo-Boer War had not openly declared his intentions. 

In the meantime the four-member Foster Gang of bank robbers – predating the notorious American pair Bonnie and Clyde by some thirty years –  was active on the Reef, and various road blocks had been set up in and around Johannesburg in an attempt to catch the gang. One such road block was positioned  in Langlaagte where Deville Road (recently renamed Albertina Sisulu) meets Du Toit Street. On the evening of 15th September 1914, Genls. De la Rey and Christiaan Beyers were on their way, by car, from Pretoria, ostensibly to Potchefstroom. Beyers had, just that morning, resigned his post as Commandant-General of the Citizen Force, and the two generals, encountering the road blocks, were, apparently, under the impression that Jan Smuts was attempting to detain and question Genl. Beyers. They ordered their driver to ignore the roadblocks and at the Langlaagte roadblock one of the constables on duty fired a shot, reportedly aiming at the right hand back wheel of the car. The ricochet bullet entered the rear of the car, and a fragment thereof lodged in Genl. De La Rey’s heart, killing him instantly.

The armed rebellion eventually petered out, but to this day there is speculation about the influence Genl. De la Rey would have had, had he joined the movement. Conspiracy theories also persist to this day as to who was responsible for his death. The unanimous opinion, then and now,  is that there is no doubt that this tragic incident had a profound influence on the events of the day. As such, it is fitting that the centenary of the event be commemorated, and arrangements have been made to have a wreath laying ceremony on Sunday 14th September 2014 at 14:00 at the site in question.

Generaal Koos de la Rey
Gemeet aan enige maatstaaf is die politieke situasie in Suid Afrika hierdie jaar onseker. Maar dit is maar bleek in vergelyking met die politieke onstuimighede in die land een honderd jaar gelede in 1914. In opvolging tot die sluipmoord van die Kroonprins van die Austro-Hongaarse Reik, Franz Ferdinand in Junie daardie jaar in Sarajevo breek die Eerste Wereld Oorlog (eertyds bekend as The Great War) uit op 28 Julie 1914. As gevolg van sy verbintenis met Belgie, is Groot-Brittanje binne ‘n week by die oorlog ingesleep op 3 Augustus 1914; en teen die eerste week in September daardie jaar  het die wereld kennis gemaak met die gruwel van loopgraaf-oorlog.

In Suid-Afrika het die Unie Regering wat in 1910 gevorm is onder die premierskap van Genl. Louis Botha en met Genl. Jan Smuts as Minister van Verdediging Groot-Brittanje se kant gekies; en het die parlement in Kaapstad besluit om Duits-Wes Afrika (vandag Namibie) in te val. Die Tweede Vryheidsoorlog het skaars 12 jaar tevore op 31 Mei 1902 geeindig  en sommige van die bittereinder generaals aan die Boere kant het die geleentheid gesien om hul onafhanklikheid van Brittanje te herwin. Sprake van ‘n gewapende rebellie was in die lug, alhoewel die leiers na hulself verwys het slegs as protesteerders. Die onmeetbaar invloedryke Genl. Koos de la Rey, na wie liefdevol verwys is as die Leeu van Wes-Transvaal, en die held van menige slagveld tydens die Tweede Vryheids Oorlog het nie openlik sy voornemens bekend gemaak nie.

Intussen was die vierledige Fosterbende bankrowers – wat die berugte Amerikaanse paar Bonnie en Clyde met sowat dertig jaar vooruitgeloop het – aktief op die Rand, en verskeie padblokkades is in en om Johannesburg opgestel in ‘n poging om die bende vas te trek.  Een sodanige padblokkade was opgestel in Langlaagte waar Devilleweg (onlangs hernoem Albertina Sisulu) aansluit by Du Toitstraat.  Op die aand van 15 September 1914 was Genls. De la Rey en Christiaan Beyers  per motor op pad van Pretoria, oenskynlik na Potchefstroom. Beyers het pas daardie oggend sy pos as Kommandant-Generaal van die Burgermag bedank, en die twee generaals was, toe hulle op die padblokkades afkom, blykbaar onder die indruk dat Jan Smuts probeer het om Genl Beyers aan te hou en te ondervra. Hulle het hul bestuurder beveel om die padblokkades te ignoreer en by die Langlaagte blokade het een van die konstabels op diens ‘n skoot afgevuur, soos berig, gemik na die regter agterwiel van die motor. Die opslagkoeel het die motor van agter binnegedring ,   ‘n fragment daarvan het in Genl. de la Rey se hart vasgeslaan, en hom onmiddelik gedood.

Die gewapende rebellie het uiteindelik doodgeloop, maar tot vandag word daar gespekuleer oor die invloed wat Genl. de la Rey daarop sou gehad het indien hy by die beweging aangesluit het. Sameswerings teorie volhard ook tot vandag oor wie vir sy dood aanspreeklik was. Die eenparige opinie, toe en nou, is dat hierdie tragiese gebeurtenis ‘n diepgaande invloed gehad het op die gebeure van die dag. As sulks is dit gepas dat die eeufees van die gebeurtenis herdenk word, en reelings is getref om ‘n kranslegging seremonie op die betrokke plek te hou op Sondag 14 September 2014 om 14 :00. “

I first found out about the new plaques on the Heritage Portal. Special thanks must go to René De Villiers for the images and her notes and speech, as well as Bev Small, and James Ball for their help in contact René, and to Boervolk Erfenis Bewaaring for the new plaque. Langlaagte Station can be found at Google Earth co-ordinates   26° 12.117’S, 27° 59.434’E

© DRW 2011-2018. Created 15/08/2011. Moved to blog 07/02/2014. Updated 29/01/2015

Updated: 06/01/2018 — 12:51
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